Some countries are rich. Some countries are poor. What can be done? Should anything be done? Who should do it, and to what degree?
This is a short and uncited
overview of development and development aid. Do not take this as a comprehensive discussion, because it's not. It's an abridged version of an abridged version of the issues and questions surrounding development. There are too many issues to lay out in an OP; in fact, you could read dozens and dozens of books and still not have touched upon half of the issues.
Consider this a jumping off point to a discussion on development.
What are the main schools of thought regarding development ?
Globalization is evil!
Globalization has led to an outsourcing of the worst jobs to countries with little to no care for things like "working conditions." Many countries have only one competitive edge: cheap labor. Many see this as simple exploitation by the western world for cheap junk fueled by inane consumer hunger. It would be better, many argue, if the west left the poorer countries alone.
Unfettered capitalism is the only way!
However, many of the "worst jobs" are often a step up from slaving on a farm and dying a young death, as seen from the intense competition for factory jobs. They generally pay a higher wage than working the fields, and offer at least the hope of bettering oneself. Doesn't this mean we should let the market run its course?
Maybe we should help countries get to a self-sustainable point before trying to force the free market on them?
Maybe we should make sure countries have the tools they need to foster competitive industries while preserving human rights? This leads us to.. development aid!
What are the main schools of thought regarding development aid?
Give them unlimited money!
Is it the place of the western world to decide how countries should be run? There are those that believe that it's our obligation to keep pouring money in until something sticks. Unfortunately, thus far, nothing has really stuck.
They should be bootstrappy!
But do they even need our money? The western world did it without anybody helping! They should drag themselves out of the mud by their boostraps! We don't owe them anything!
Let's identify the root causes of the problems, and try to come up with effective strategic implementations!
Doesn't this sound like a great idea? Well, it's harder than it sounds. Nobody has figured it out yet. But they're trying.
Why should I even care?
Increasing the wealth of poorer countries increases the wealth of everyone.
How? Well, by having more trading partners that can purchase exports, primarily. But also through the magic of comparative advantage between trade partners. This is, in fact, how many of the "developing countries" have had such an enormous increase in wealth: through their comparative advantage in cheap labor. Of course, that leads into its own problems..
Mass migration is bad for everyone.
This is a difficult topic to discuss because there is so much emotion involved, but the bottom line is crippling poverty and sustained conflicts create refugees
. Where are they to go? What happens to them? How can they receive the opportunity to live a life with dignity? Because they're not doing it now. Moving countries to the point of sustainable, humane development relieves migratory pressures and benefits everyone.
War costs money, time, and lives
Civil wars, genocides, etc. cost the world billions of dollars, not to mention lives
. Stabilizing countries reduces the risk of conflict, which saves lives, money, and reduces problems like disease and mass migration.
If "we" don't do it, someone else will.. and we won't like the results.
'Western' aid to the poorest countries comes with strings attached like "don't murder people with this money" or "don't use this money to enrich yourselves at the expense of your people". China, on the other hand, has explicitly stated that they don't care what despots and dictators do with the money they're giving out, as long as they get the natural resources they're after. Nobody knows how much money China is pouring into the poorest countries, but the number is probably
Once again, this is a brief and completely non-comprehensive overview of development and development aid. Please feel free to expand.
Please note that this is not a conversation about immigration policy, the darkies taking yer jobs, or any other form of goosery.