WASD controls + Mouse.
I opens up your inventory
Hold left click to remove blocks or attack mobs
Right click places blocks or gets into boats/minecarts.
Space jumps or swims.
F5 goes into third person, if you like that kind of thing.
Q drops whatever item you are holding
F changes the draw distance.
Esc takes you to the main menu
T lets you talk to people in multiplayer
First, punch those trees. Now you have logs. You may also wanna punch down those leaves, you get saplings in return which allows you to replant more trees. You can punch as many as you want, but for the moment let's just stick with one tree.
Don't know what to do with logs? Stick them in here.
1 log gives you 4 planks, which you can use to build a tiny little home for the night much more quickly. Plus planks burn at about the same rate as logs do, so when you're low on coal or you'd rather use coal for torches it's a good substitute.
To make a crafting table, do this.
This allows you to use a larger crafting surface, which is what you will be needing for tools and for most of everything else in the game. Consider bringing an extra one with you in your travels as part of your supply kit. You can destroy it with an axe to pick it back up.
To make tools, you need handles. You make them out of sticks like so:
At this point you are probably thinking you need more lumber. Make an axe.
In singleplayer, all tools have a life expectancy. Wood and gold don't last for very long, iron lasts a decent amount of time and diamond lasts for quite a while. There's a bug currently in multiplayer that lets you drop an item and then pick it back up to "fix it" but don't expect it to last forever. Some tools are better suited for different materials. Hoes don't last for very long, and you won't want to use a diamond pickaxe to harvest stone as fast as it may go. Diamond swords though should be the first thing you make once you find diamond as they are quite deadly and last quite a while, especially if you use bow and arrows. You need an Iron pickaxe to harvest gold, diamond and redstone, and a diamond one to harvest obsidian. You'll be fine starting out with wood but personally, I mostly use stone tools when I can.
Is it getting dark? You should consider finishing that home pretty quick. No one makes anything elaborate on the first day. You can use dirt to finish your home but don't use sand or gravel on the ceiling, they fall.
Now that you are hiding from the scary monsters you probably want to light the place up. Monsters spawn in the dark after all. To get coal though for torches, you need to mine. And you need a pickaxe.
When you do find coal, and look at this list
to see what coal looks like, grab a stick and then do this.
As you can see you don't need a crafting table to make torches, they only require two blocks.
And there are the basics! If you get hurt build a hoe and right click the ground until you find seeds. Plant them into soil near water and wait, and you'll have wheat! Make that into bread and regenerate some life, or you can kill a pig, eat the raw flesh for some health or cook it in your furnace for more. The wikia tells you how to make armor and all kinds of stuff in the crafting link so check it out!