I'm about ready to admit defeat in my Google-fu, as I'm trying to track a short story back down that I read online, probably 2-3 years ago.
More than likely, it was originally found published in a pulp and I would have come across it on one of the multiple sites that archive such out-of-copyright or public domain stories.
This is all subject to being misremembered, but here it goes:
Its setting was (almost probably) Mars, and the story followed students living and studying in a space station there. The students had been born and raised there (possibly of multiple generations), but the generation prior to them (the teachers) was less suitable for being exposed to the elements. I believe it ended with some sudden and violent revolt against the teacher(s), and the surprise twist was that the students had physically adapted in drastic and monstrous ways (gigantic, hairy, etc.), and had as such lost touch with their more human-like predecessors, coupled with disdain toward them for being weaker / unable to survive outside of the station.
If this rings a bell with anyone, I'd highly appreciate being pointed in the right direction.